Morality

Applesauce

Sonoma County Fair, 2014, apple sauce division, second place

Top 20 Most Requested Reprints

  1. Would someone please explain what it means to be ethical? Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2013, 41 (7), 493-497.
    Legal (you must confirm to what others decide), charitable (it is optional to do what you think good), professional (colleagues agree on who to treat each other and patients), ethical (theoretical discussion of right and wrong), and morality (acting for the good and the right) are explained in the dental context.
  2. Developing a self-scoring comprehensive instrument to measure Rest’s four-component model of moral behavior: The moral skills inventory. Chambers, D. W. Journal of Dental Education, 2011, 75 (1), 23-35.
    Development and validation of 40-time paper-and-pencil instrument for assessing Rest’s Four-Component model (moral sensitivity, reflection, integrity, and courage); instrument included in description.
  3. Confusions in the equipoise concept and the alternative of fully informed overlapping rational decisions. Chambers, D. W. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy, 2011, 24, 133-142.
    Research subjects and healthcare professional/researchers can rationally disagree with each other despite sharing empirical estimates of probability, values for outcomes, and even both; a model of mutual informed consent to action is proposed.
  4. Position paper on digital communication in dentistry. Chambers, D. W. [Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentists] Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2012¸ 79 (4), 19-30.
    Characteristics of digital communication (social media) and their ethical implications are discussed; eight principles are presented and it is urged that third parties not be permitted to insert themselves into the dentist-patient relationship.
  5. Promises. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2000, 67 (3), 51-55.
    Promises are “performative” statements that can only be given by qualified individuals, under specific circumstances, and using formulaic language that created a different world, rather than describing it.
  6. Doctor will see your ICD-9 now. Chambers, D. W. Philosophy and Medicine (Newsletter of the American Philosophical Association), 2014, 13 (2), 26-32.
    Five narratives from the literature are presented to illustrate that health care depends on a relationship of mutual agency (others can affect us) over and above respect for autonomy which can leave others as objects of charity.
  7. A primer on dental ethics: Part II. Moral behavior. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2007, 74 (4), 38-51.
    The focus is on moral behavior rather than ethical analysis, with an introduction to stages of moral development, use of language, and mutual commitment to action; includes a detailed discussion of breaches of academic integrity in dental education.
  8. Computer simulation of dental professionals as a moral community. Chambers, D. W. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy, 2014, 17, 467-476.
    Makrov, replicator computer modeling is applied to a four agent environment (good passive, good active, deviant, and enforcers) showing that a certain number of deviant agents will remain, despite punishment and education, as determined by primarily be the relationship between the active and passive good agents.
  9. Large ethics. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2008, 75 (2), 36-48.
    Ethics is discussed as a relationship between agents rather than between on individual and the principle he or she favors.
  10. Club Ethics. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2010, 38 (4), 223, 225.
    Professionalism is an arrangement among individuals with similar interests about who they will treat each other as members of the group and how they will treat others they deal with; the agreement is not reached with those outside the group.
  11. Disclosure. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2013, 41 (6), 381, 383.
    It is widely believed that required disclosure is an adequate protection in cases of potential conflict of interest, but research shows it escalates the scope of self-interested claims.
  12. Oral health is not an entitlement. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2009, 76 (1), 50-56.
    Some argue that health or oral health in particular is an entitlement — is a right one may expect based on who they are rather than what they do; it is shown that this position is not sound and is not in fact generally held with respect to any aspect of health.
  13. Moral bleaching. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2012, 40 (11), 843, 850.
    Moral transgressions are often reframed as legal or contractual breaches with a view toward “buying” one’s way out of fault or even of persisting in the breach on the grounds of willingness to pay the price.
  14. A primer on dental ethics: Part I. Knowing about ethics. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2006, 73 (4), 38-47.
    The most prominent theories of ethics are discussed: normative or principles; utilitarianism, and virtue ethics; duty ethics, rights, and care ethics are also mentioned.
  15. Ethical principles as smoke screens. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2014, 42 (7), 433.
    Ethics language is sometimes used as a public relations ploy.
  16. Moral decoupling. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2012, 40 (7), 555, 562.
    Moral decoupling involves the separation of what is being said about behavior and its moral nature: a good excuse can mask bad behavior.
  17. Small ethics. Chambers, D. W. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 2007, 74 (1), 27-35.
    There are a variety of small and habitual lapses that are often accepted as “near ethical behavior”: shirking (cutting corners), free riding (taking more of the common good than one contributes), shrinkage (taking a little on the belief that no one will miss it), pressure (shading the truth), adverse selection (getting out of common commitments that help other more), moral hazard (opportunism), and risk shifting (it would hurt you more to punish me than you would gain by doing so).
  18. Smoking guns and targets [issues in ethics column]. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2014, 42 (1), 9.
    If a dentist were on trial accused of being moral would there be enough concrete evidence to get a conviction?
  19. Distributive justice. Chambers, D. W. In J. V. M. Welie (Ed). Justice in oral health care: Ethical and educational perspectives. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 2006. pp. 145-170.
    Just allocation of limited healthcare resources is discussed in terms of game theory; principle approaches fail to solve such challenges as Arrow’s indeterminacy of the social welfare function demonstrates.
  20. The five Cs. Chambers, D. W. California Dental Association Journal, 2012, 40 (3), 209, 211.
    Oral health care should be competent, comprehensive, continuous, coordinated, and compassionate.